Bachelor’s Degree Programme(BSCG) – IMMUNOLOGY Assignment Answer | BZYET-141 (Q-6)

Bachelor’s Degree Programme(BSCG) – IMMUNOLOGY Assignment Answer | BZYET-141 (Q-6)

6. Explain:
i) Precipitation
ii) Neutralization
iii) Agglutination
iv) Opsonisation
with reference to antigen-antibody interactions.

(i) Precipitation is the formation of an insoluble molecule in a liquid solution; this insoluble molecule is called the precipitate. A precipitate is formed when two soluble ionic compounds are mixed. Soluble ionic compounds can break into their ions in the solution. Then these ions can react with each other to form a precipitate or stay as a solubilized ion in that solution. The chemical species that cause this precipitation is called precipitant.
(ii) Neutralization: In the immunological sense refers to the ability of antibodies to block the site(s) of bacteria or viruses that they use to enter their target cell. One example of this within biology is a neutralizing antibody.
(iii) Agglutination is the aggregation of particles to form a single large solid mass. This mass will either stay as a suspension or will sink to the bottom of the container. The end product is called the aggregate. Agglutination occurs with particles that are already present in the solution.
(iv) Another mechanism by which antibodies can respond to pathogens is known as “opsonization.” By opsonization, antibodies enable phagocytes for ingesting and destroying the extracellular bacterium. The phagocytes recognize the Fc region of the antibodies coating the pathogen and foreign particles.

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