Bachelor’s Degree Programme(BSCG)– INSECT VECTORS AND VECTOR BORNE DISEASES Answer | BZYET-143(Q-4)
4. Write short notes on the following:
i) Prevention of control measures of fleas
ii) Typhus fever
iii) Tunga penetrans
iv) Transmission of plague
(i) Prevention of Control measures of fleas – Limit the amount of time your pet spends outdoors.
– Limit contact with wild and stray animals.
– Bathe and brush pets regularly.
– Check for fleas regularly.
– Fleas prefer warmer and more humid months, but if there is an animal to feed on, fleas can survive year-round.
– Talk to your veterinarian about flea control products that are right for your pet.
– Treat pets for fleas year-round in order to kill adult fleas and prevent new ones from hatching.
– Always follow product instructions.
– If you find a flea on your pet or in your home, learn how to get rid of fleas right away to avoid further infestation.
(ii) Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, and murine typhus. Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash. Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure.
The diseases are caused by specific types of bacterial infections. Epidemic typhus is due to Rickettsia prowazekii spread by body lice, scrub typhus is due to Orientia tsutsugamushi spread by chiggers, and murine typhus is due to Rickettsia typhi spread by fleas.
(iii) Tunga penetrans (commonly known as a jigger or jigger flea, but also known as chigoe flea, nigua, or sand flea) is a parasitic insect found in most tropical and sub-tropical climates. Jiggers are often confused with chiggers — a type of mite. Jiggers are native to Central and South America and have been inadvertently introduced by humans to sub-Saharan Africa.
Synonyms for Tunga penetrans include Sarcopsylla penetrans, Pulex penetrates, and many others. In its parasitic phase, it has a significant impact on its hosts, which include humans and certain other mammalian species. A parasitical infestation of T. penetrans is called tungiasis.
(iv) Plague is a serious bacterial infection that’s transmitted primarily by fleas. The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals.
The most common form of plague results in swollen and tender lymph nodes — called buboes — in the groin, armpits or neck. The rarest and deadliest form of plague affects the lungs, and it can be spread from person to person.
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